7.Jacobean Holy year
Pope Calixto II, of French origin, temporarily instituted the Jacobean Holy Year in 1122, and was formalized with his ratification by the Bula Regis Aeterni, published by Pope Alexander III in 1179 and which is the oldest granting leaflet of the religion catholic Also known as Ano Santo Compostela, it has a variable periodicity of five, six and 11 years, whenever the feast of Santiago, on July 25, falls on a Sunday and is the most frequent Jubilee of the Catholic Church. Exceptionally they were considered two holy years outside of tradition: in 1884, in praise for the rediscovery of the body of the Apostle and in 1937, during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39). Another attraction of the Holy Year is the opening of the "Holy Door" at the back of the Cathedral in the Plaza de La Quintana.
Even more important is that pilgrims in holy years could receive the Jubilee Bull or Jubilee, a privilege dating from the twelfth century, inscribed in the Bull Regis Aeterni. The grace of the jubilee consists, in essence, in the full indulgence of sins.
Between the 11th and 15th centuries, the intense traffic of pilgrims transformed Compostela into the most important political and economic center of northwest Spain.
In 1139, the Way was presented with the Codex Calistinus , an integral part of the Liber Sancti Jacobi and became known as the first guide of the Way, initiating the process of guided pilgrimage pilgrimage. In 1188, the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela gained an increase of real beauty with the construction of its famous Portico da Gloria, an inspired work of Maestro Mateo , which today is the main access to the cathedral.
However, the pest (14th century) and the European religious wars made the walk very dangerous and decreased the search for the Way. With the closure in the 16th century of the French route as a route of pilgrimage and commerce, by virtue of the war between the kingdoms of Castile and France, the Way fell into decline.
In 1588 with the city besieged by the English privateer Francis Drake and under the risk of imminent invasion, Archbishop San Clemente removed from the Cathedral and hid the ark with the mortal remains of Santiago to avoid that it was desecrated by the invader. The ark remained in an unknown place for more than 300 years. It was rediscovered by Cardinal Palay at the end of the 19th century, 1878, when the cult of Santiago was resumed with the rediscovery of the relics and the pacification of the region.
The beginning of the nineteenth century was terrible for Spain, which suffered the French invasion and had its capital taken in 1833. But the Path, with the rediscovery of the remains of Santiago and a policy of reconstruction and reorganization of Spanish territory, resumed its vigor . The twentieth century presented new dark periods for the country, suffering with two world wars and with the bloody Civil War (1936-1939) on Spanish soil. The Path resented it, but it did not stop at this chaotic horizon.
The Way took a new breath from the twentieth century. The multi-secular pilgrimage to Compostela, along the Camino de Santiago, generated from the beginning a spiritual, cultural and economic prosperity. He fostered literature, music, art and history, and as a result cities and towns, as well as countless churches, cathedrals and hospitals, appeared to support and comfort the pilgrims. The Way always functioned as a catalyst for cultures, transmitter of ideas and promoter of the meeting of peoples and languages, which was strongly emphasized in the twentieth century.